Information on Service 'ARIGFH identified objects'

[Use this service from your browser]

Further access options are discussed below

ARI's "Geschichte des Fixsternhimmels" is an attempt to collect all astrometrically useful observations from before ca. 1970 in a way comparable to what has been done to construct the FK* series of fundamental catalogs. About 7e6 published positions are included. In GAVO's DC, we provide tables of identified and non-identified stars together with the master catalog that objects were identified against.

For a list of all services and tables belonging to this service's resource, see Information on resource 'ARIGFH object catalog'

Service Documentation

ARIGFH (ARI's "Geschichte des Fixsternhimmels") was a project running from at least 1990 until the early 2000s at Astronomisches Rechen-Institut Heidelberg (today a part of Zentrum für Astronomie of Heidelberg University). It strived to become the successor to Geschichte des Fixsternhimmels (see below) and succeeded in digitizing roughly 2500 and cross-matching about 1600 historical catalogs but petered out in the early 2000s for various reasons.

What is left is a large set of published positions, many matched against a master catalog, quite a few unresolved. There are also rough catalog descriptions, the raw catalogs in ASCII format, and FORTRAN subroutines (of admittedly varying quality) to parse the raw catalogs.

Some work has been done on bringing the systems of some of those catalogs to the ICRS and do further processing with the aim of producing proper motions of the objects. You are welcome to contact the operators if you are interested in taking up this work. Note that some command of German would certainly help a lot in this case.

Locating Data

Two main entry points might be interesting for the casual user -- for one, the cone search that gives you, for a given object or ICRS position, all observations that were matched to master objects near that position. Note that the first columns from the result tables come from the master catalog, i.e., they are all identical for the same star. The later quantities (e.g., raCat and decCat) give what is in the catalog. Of course, positions and other data are for the equinoxes and epochs specified with each row.

The second entry point for the casual user is katkat, the catalog of catalogs. Look for data for particular epochs, search by titles or authors, or just browse (links for doing that are in the katkat service info). Catalogs that have Teleki numbers have links into ARIGFH leading to the objects identified and not identfied from these tables.

Advanced users will want to directly access the tables.

The Tables

The arigfh schema consists of several tables. The most important one is the arigfh.gfh table, containing almost all published data. In it, positions and proper motions are largely as they were published, i.e., in a wild mixture of equinoxes for a wild mixture of epochs. Also, not all objects have both a usable RA and Dec. Therefore, there is no spatial index on the table. We have indexed RA and Dec separately, though.

The primary way to approach the gfh table (apart from sequential scans, which due to the moderate size of the table should be no big issue) is through catid (the catalog id, formed like tNNNNpNN; see katkat for details) and catan (the ARIGFH-assigned running number within the catalog, as opposed to catcn, the published catalog number).

Within the arigfh.gfh table, there should for most objects be sufficient metadata to at least precess the objects. What ARIGFH actually did to crossmatch the objects was to precess and transform a master catalog (in the arigfh.master table) to the published epoch and equinox and use that to crossmatch the objects.

The result of this matching is in the arigfh.identified table. It connects each identified position from the gfh table via the catid/catan pair to a position in the master catalog (via the masterNo column). These relationships are flattened out in the arigfh.id table. This is the basis for the SCS and web services since it contains ICRS positions as well as the historic observations.

Analoguosly, there is the arigfh.unidenfied table, giving catid and catan for the objects from gfh that could not be matched to the master catalog. Selecting those from the gfh table yields arigfh.nid. There's a simple web frontend for that table at arigfh/q/nidweb/form. Most of what is in there these probably just represents typos, but if you look, you will certainly find all kinds of weird things. Who knows -- maybe you could even find the optical counterpart of a historic GRB...

The FORTRAN subroutines

Where available, the katkat service lets you download the FORTRAN subroutines that were used to parse the data files. To understand them, please refer to to the (German) descriptions or ask the operators for the documents to be translated; of course, all comments in the FORTRAN code are in German, too. On the other hand, those comments are not terribly useful in the first place.

The subroutines use some functions that we've not yet published, mainly because they might be embarrassing to the anonymous authors. If you actually intend to use the subroutines, let us know and we will try to cook up a source file that contains all functions used.

While working on the import of the old data, many subroutines needed to be fixed. Most changes fixed spurious line feeds, uninitialized variables, changes in the FORTRAN compiler's way to evaluate string comparisons, etc. Since the original routines are still stored, it would be possible to reconstruct the changes, but since they are unlikely to have introduced additional problems, we do not list changes here.

However, with this experience in mind, it is certain that additional problems connected to changing FORTRAN semantics lurk in the parsing subroutines and thus the data. Bug reports are welcome.

Having said all that, the only thing the subroutines should probably used for is to glean metadata from them. The student assistants who wrote the subroutines were supposed to carefully study the introductions to the catalogs in order to fill out the metadata fields (kennx4/8), and quite a number of them actually did.

Geschichte des Fixsternhimmels

ARIGFH's predecessor or inspiration, "Geschichte des Fixsternhimmels" (Paetsch et al) or GFH, "The history of the stellar sky", is a massive collection of stellar positions from almost all published catalogs for the 18th and 19th centuries.

The endeavor started in 1898 with a memorandum by Friedrich Wilhelm Ristenpart of Heidelberger Sternwarte (with input by Arthur von Auwers, who had suggested a similar project some 20 years before) to the Prussian Academy of Sciences proposing the generation of a "Thesaurus positionum stellarum affixarum". Auwers then applied for funding and got it for fiscal year 1998/99. Ristenpart was appointed director of the project.

The source material of GFH consisted of 442 catalogs with roughly 250000 objects and about a million individual positions. These had to be brought to equinox B1875.0 and crossmatched, all without the help of modern digital computers.

One first result of Ristenpart's activities was the "Fehlerverzeichnis zu den Sternkatalogen des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts" ("Directory of Errors in the Star Catalogs of the 18th and 19th centuries"), published in 1908. When Ristenpart moved to Santiago de Chile, Hans Paetsch took over. Due to Auwer's death, World War I, and problems in the preprint phase, the first volume of GFH, covering 0h in RA on the northern sky, did not appear until 1922.

In the 1920s, work was significantly delayed when temporarily Paetsch was the only person actually working on GFH. Starting 1926, personnel was re-allottet to GFH, such that by 1936 the northen part of GFH was finished.

The publication of the southern part of GFH began in 1937, after Johannes Haas had taken over from Paetsch when the latter had retired in 1929. World War II and the split of the program into a western part in Bonn and a dormant eastern part in Potsdam had brought GFH to a standstill until IAU's executive committee passed a decision noting the importance of the volumes still missing.

The last volume of the original GFH (full catalog set reduced to equinox B1875.0) was published by the East German GFH project in 1966; somewhat earlier, the Bonn group published their last volume in 1958, but they were missing some catalogs that they considered sufficiently covered by the Hamburg Index.

This section is heavily based on 1972S&W....11..224A. The bibliography there lists the following items that are not yet in ADS:

Overview

You can access this service using:

This service is published as follows:

local means it is listed on our front page, ivo_managed means it has a record in the VO registry.

Other services provided on the underlying data include:

Input Fields

The following fields are available to provide input to the service (with some renderers, some of these fields may be unavailable):

NameTable Head DescriptionUnitUCD
catid Cat. Catalog identifier as t(teleki no)p(part)(version) N/A meta.ref
DEC Delta (ICRS) Declination (ICRS decimal) deg pos.eq.dec
hscs_pos Position/Name Coordinates (as h m s, d m s or decimal degrees), or SIMBAD-resolvable object N/A N/A
hscs_sr Search radius Search radius in arcminutes N/A N/A
RA Alpha (ICRS) Right Ascension (ICRS decimal) deg pos.eq.ra
SR Search Radius Search radius deg N/A

Default Output Fields

The following fields are contained in the output by default. More fields may be available for selection; these would be given below in the VOTable output fields.

NameTable Head DescriptionUnitUCD
_r Dist. Distance to cone center deg pos.distance
catan ARI catno Object number in source catalog, ARI assigned N/A meta.id
catca Cat id suffix Suffix to the designation in the source catalog N/A meta.id
catcn Cat id Object number in source catalog, as in source N/A meta.id
catid Cat. Catalog identifier as t(teleki no)p(part)(version) N/A meta.ref
compMaster Comp Component designation in a multiple system in the master catalog N/A meta.code.multip
decCat Dec (cat) Declination at catalog equinox and epoch deg pos.eq.dec
decflags Dec flags Details on observation and processing of dec (see note) Note c N/A meta.code;pos.eq.dec
dej2000 Dec Master Declination, Epoch and Equinox J2000 deg pos.eq.dec;meta.main
dist Offset Offset between master catalog position at catalog epoch and equinox and the catalog position deg pos.angDistance
dscode Comp Code for multiple star component designation Note b N/A meta.code.multip
e_Dec Err. Dec Mean error in declination as given in catalog deg stat.error;pos.eq.dec;meta.main
e_pmde Err. PM (Dec) Mean error in the proper motion in Dec according to the catalog deg/yr stat.error;pos.pm;pos.eq.dec
e_pmra Err. PM (RA) Mean error in the proper motion in RA according to the catalog deg/yr stat.error;pos.pm;pos.eq.ra
e_RA Err. RA Mean error in right ascension as given in catalog deg stat.error;pos.eq.ra;meta.main
epDec Ep. Dec Epoch of the catalog declination, Julian years yr time.epoch;pos.eq.dec
epPmde Ep. PM(Dec) Epoch of cat. PM in declination yr time.epoch;pos.pm;pos.eq.dec
epPmra Ep. PM(RA) Epoch of cat. PM in RA yr time.epoch;pos.pm;pos.eq.ra
epRA Ep. RA Epoch of the catalog RA, Julian years yr time.epoch;pos.eq.ra
eqDec Eq. Dec Equinox of the catalog declination, Julian years yr time.equinox;pos.eq.dec
eqPmde Eq. PM(Dec) Equinox of cat. PM in Dec yr time.equinox;pos.pm;pos.eq.dec
eqPmra Eq. PM(RA) Equinox of cat. PM in RA yr time.equinox;pos.pm;pos.eq.ra
eqRA Eq. RA Equinox of the catalog RA, Julian years yr time.equinox;pos.eq.ra
iq Match Qual. Quality of match, quality decreasing with values increasing from 2 N/A meta.code.qual
mag mag Apparent magnitude as specified by magsys N/A phot.mag
magsys Mag. Sys. System of mag Note m N/A meta.code;phot.mag
masterNo id# Identification number in the ARIGFH master catalog N/A meta.id;meta.main
mbMaster m_B Blue magnitude in the master catalog mag phot.mag;em.opt.B
meanepDec Mean Ep. Dec Mean Epoch of the declination, Julian years yr time.epoch
meanepRA Mean Ep. RA Mean Epoch of RA, Julian years yr time.epoch
mvMaster m_V Visual magnitude in the master catalog mag phot.mag;em.opt.V
nobDec #(Dec) Number of observations combined into decCat N/A meta.number;obs
nobpmde #PM (Dec) Number of observations combined into the proper motion in Declination N/A meta.number;obs
nobpmra #PM (RA) Number of observations combined into the proper motion in RA N/A meta.number;obs
nobRA #(RA) Number of observations combined into raCat N/A meta.number;obs
pmde PM (Dec) Cat. proper motion in declination deg/yr pos.pm;pos.eq.dec
pmdeflag PM Dec type Type of PM Dec; see note Note p N/A meta.flag;pos.pm;pos.eq.dec
pmdeMaster PM(Dec) Master Proper motion in Declination, Epoch and Equinox J2000 deg/yr pos.pm;pos.eq.dec
pmra PM (RA) Cat. proper motion in RA deg/yr pos.pm;pos.eq.ra
pmraflag PM RA type Type of PM RA; see note Note p N/A meta.flag;pos.pm;pos.eq.ra
pmraMaster PM(RA) Master Proper Motion in RA, Epoch and Equinox J2000, cos(delta) applied deg/yr pos.pm;pos.eq.ra
raCat RA (cat) Right ascension at catalog equinox and epoch deg pos.eq.ra
raflags RA flags Details on observation and processing of RA (see note) Note c N/A meta.code;pos.eq.ra
raj2000 RA Master Right Ascension, Epoch and Equinox J2000 deg pos.eq.ra;meta.main
useDec Use Dec? 0=Dec unusable, 1=Dec usable, 2=Dec good, but epoch guessed N/A meta.flag;pos.eq.dec
useRA Use RA? 0=RA unusable, 1=RA usable, 2=RA good, but epoch guessed N/A meta.flag;pos.eq.ra
varflag Var? Code for photometric variability Note v N/A meta.code;src.var

VOTable Output Fields

The following fields are available in VOTable output. The verbosity level is a number intended to represent the relative importance of the field on a scale of 1 to 30. The services take a VERB argument. A field is included in the output if their verbosity level is less or equal VERB*10.

NameTable Head DescriptionUnitUCD Verb. Level
masterNo id# Identification number in the ARIGFH master catalog N/A meta.id;meta.main 1
raj2000 RA Master Right Ascension, Epoch and Equinox J2000 deg pos.eq.ra;meta.main 1
dej2000 Dec Master Declination, Epoch and Equinox J2000 deg pos.eq.dec;meta.main 1
dist Offset Offset between master catalog position at catalog epoch and equinox and the catalog position deg pos.angDistance 1
catcn Cat id Object number in source catalog, as in source N/A meta.id 1
catca Cat id suffix Suffix to the designation in the source catalog N/A meta.id 1
raCat RA (cat) Right ascension at catalog equinox and epoch deg pos.eq.ra 1
eqRA Eq. RA Equinox of the catalog RA, Julian years yr time.equinox;pos.eq.ra 1
decCat Dec (cat) Declination at catalog equinox and epoch deg pos.eq.dec 1
eqDec Eq. Dec Equinox of the catalog declination, Julian years yr time.equinox;pos.eq.dec 1
_r Dist. Distance to cone center deg pos.distance 10
pmraMaster PM(RA) Master Proper Motion in RA, Epoch and Equinox J2000, cos(delta) applied deg/yr pos.pm;pos.eq.ra 11
pmdeMaster PM(Dec) Master Proper motion in Declination, Epoch and Equinox J2000 deg/yr pos.pm;pos.eq.dec 11
pmra PM (RA) Cat. proper motion in RA deg/yr pos.pm;pos.eq.ra 11
pmde PM (Dec) Cat. proper motion in declination deg/yr pos.pm;pos.eq.dec 11
epRA Ep. RA Epoch of the catalog RA, Julian years yr time.epoch;pos.eq.ra 12
epDec Ep. Dec Epoch of the catalog declination, Julian years yr time.epoch;pos.eq.dec 12
catid Cat. Catalog identifier as t(teleki no)p(part)(version) N/A meta.ref 15
dscode Comp Code for multiple star component designation Note b N/A meta.code.multip 15
mag mag Apparent magnitude as specified by magsys N/A phot.mag 15
mvMaster m_V Visual magnitude in the master catalog mag phot.mag;em.opt.V 18
mbMaster m_B Blue magnitude in the master catalog mag phot.mag;em.opt.B 18
compMaster Comp Component designation in a multiple system in the master catalog N/A meta.code.multip 19
e_RA Err. RA Mean error in right ascension as given in catalog deg stat.error;pos.eq.ra;meta.main 19
e_Dec Err. Dec Mean error in declination as given in catalog deg stat.error;pos.eq.dec;meta.main 19
e_pmra Err. PM (RA) Mean error in the proper motion in RA according to the catalog deg/yr stat.error;pos.pm;pos.eq.ra 19
pmraflag PM RA type Type of PM RA; see note Note p N/A meta.flag;pos.pm;pos.eq.ra 19
e_pmde Err. PM (Dec) Mean error in the proper motion in Dec according to the catalog deg/yr stat.error;pos.pm;pos.eq.dec 19
pmdeflag PM Dec type Type of PM Dec; see note Note p N/A meta.flag;pos.pm;pos.eq.dec 19
magsys Mag. Sys. System of mag Note m N/A meta.code;phot.mag 21
varflag Var? Code for photometric variability Note v N/A meta.code;src.var 21
eqPmra Eq. PM(RA) Equinox of cat. PM in RA yr time.equinox;pos.pm;pos.eq.ra 21
epPmra Ep. PM(RA) Epoch of cat. PM in RA yr time.epoch;pos.pm;pos.eq.ra 21
eqPmde Eq. PM(Dec) Equinox of cat. PM in Dec yr time.equinox;pos.pm;pos.eq.dec 21
epPmde Ep. PM(Dec) Epoch of cat. PM in declination yr time.epoch;pos.pm;pos.eq.dec 21
catan ARI catno Object number in source catalog, ARI assigned N/A meta.id 25
iq Match Qual. Quality of match, quality decreasing with values increasing from 2 N/A meta.code.qual 25
nobRA #(RA) Number of observations combined into raCat N/A meta.number;obs 25
useRA Use RA? 0=RA unusable, 1=RA usable, 2=RA good, but epoch guessed N/A meta.flag;pos.eq.ra 25
raflags RA flags Details on observation and processing of RA (see note) Note c N/A meta.code;pos.eq.ra 25
nobDec #(Dec) Number of observations combined into decCat N/A meta.number;obs 25
useDec Use Dec? 0=Dec unusable, 1=Dec usable, 2=Dec good, but epoch guessed N/A meta.flag;pos.eq.dec 25
decflags Dec flags Details on observation and processing of dec (see note) Note c N/A meta.code;pos.eq.dec 25
nobpmra #PM (RA) Number of observations combined into the proper motion in RA N/A meta.number;obs 25
nobpmde #PM (Dec) Number of observations combined into the proper motion in Declination N/A meta.number;obs 25
meanepRA Mean Ep. RA Mean Epoch of RA, Julian years yr time.epoch 27
meanepDec Mean Ep. Dec Mean Epoch of the declination, Julian years yr time.epoch 27

Copyright, License, Acknowledgements

catalog data is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

/static/img/ccby.png

VOResource XML (that's something exclusively for VO nerds)

Note b

The dscode gives a note on components of multiple star systems derived from what the original catalog gives. It is formed as 1000*n1 + 100*n2 + n3, where

n1 passage relation
0 not applicable
1 p, pr., first, or similar
2 s, sq., follow, or similar
-
n2 sky relation
0 not applicable
1 N, north, or similar
2 S, south, or similar
-
n3 component designation
0 not applicable
1..15 A, B, C... Component
16 "P" Component
17 "Q" Component
41..58 as 1..17, but lowercase
80 other designations, like "double", "triple", etc.
87 mean
88 c.g., center of gravity
89 as one star
90 additional specifications (like relative positions)
Note c

Declination and right ascension values given by the catalogue are described by numeric flags with up to five digits. The digit's meanings are, from most to least significant:

msd Treatment of upper and lower culmination
0 no treatment of upper/lower culmination
1 value given was obtained at upper culmination
2 value given was obtained at lower culmination
3 direct observation
4 reflected observation
5 lower culmination and reflected observation
-
2nd digit Type of data given
0 nothing given
1 positions are observed or compiled as given
2 catalog gives observed differences
3 position was not observed but copied from some other source
4 position only given approximately
5 position was reconstructed from a difference
-
3rd digit Position is for...
0 epoch of observation
1 epoch of equinox and catalog PMs have been used
2 some non-observation epoch, but catalog PMs have not been used
3 sometimes for eoo, sometimes not
9 (unclear)
-
4th digit Treatment of elliptic aberration
0 positions do not include elliptic aberration
1 positions do include elliptic aberration
9 unknown
-
lsd Treatment of cos(delta) in RA differences and PMs
0 no cos(delta) applied
1 cos(delta) applied
9 unknown
Note m

The magsys column is built from two characters as c1+c2. Their meaning is

c1 Magnitude use flag
0 No magnitude observed
1 Magnitude was directly observed
2 Magniude is taken from another source
9 Inconsistent or unknown
-
c2 Photometric system
0 No magnitude observed
1 visual
2 photoelectric in the visual band
3 photographic
4 Tycho visual
5 Tycho blue
9 Inconsistent or unknown
Note p

The pmratype and pmdetype fields contain a single number describing what the proper motion given in the catalog is:

NULL Nothing given
1 Proper motion is computed and given directly
2 Proper motion was taken from a different catalog
3 Catalog gives differences to another catalog (!)
4 Proper motion was given in North Polar Distance
9 Source of P.M. is unclear

Note that in case 4 the sign of the proper motion has already been reversed. In contrast, no attempt has been made to fix the relative proper motions in case 3. Values with a flag of 3 are thus not usable.

Note v

The variability flag takes the following values:

0 not variable (or not applicable)
1 variable without further information
2 maximum magnitude given
3 minimal magnitude given
4 mean magnitude given
5 RR Lyrae type variability
6 delta Cephei type variability
7 variability at a level of <0.06 mag
8 variability at a level of 0.06 .. 0.6 mag
9 variability at a level of >0.6 mag