Further access options are discussed below
For a list of all services and tables belonging to this service's resource, see Information on resource 'ARIGFH object catalog'
ARIGFH (ARI's "Geschichte des Fixsternhimmels") was a project running from at least 1990 until the early 2000s at Astronomisches Rechen-Institut Heidelberg (today a part of Zentrum für Astronomie of Heidelberg University). It strived to become the successor to Geschichte des Fixsternhimmels (see below) and succeeded in digitizing roughly 2500 and cross-matching about 1600 historical catalogs but petered out in the early 2000s for various reasons.
What is left is a large set of published positions, many matched against a master catalog, quite a few unresolved. There are also rough catalog descriptions, the raw catalogs in ASCII format, and FORTRAN subroutines (of admittedly varying quality) to parse the raw catalogs.
Some work has been done on bringing the systems of some of those catalogs to the ICRS and do further processing with the aim of producing proper motions of the objects. You are welcome to contact the operators if you are interested in taking up this work. Note that some command of German would certainly help a lot in this case.
Two main entry points might be interesting for the casual user -- for one, the cone search that gives you, for a given object or ICRS position, all observations that were matched to master objects near that position. Note that the first columns from the result tables come from the master catalog, i.e., they are all identical for the same star. The later quantities (e.g., raCat and decCat) give what is in the catalog. Of course, positions and other data are for the equinoxes and epochs specified with each row.
The second entry point for the casual user is katkat, the catalog of catalogs. Look for data for particular epochs, search by titles or authors, or just browse (links for doing that are in the katkat service info). Catalogs that have Teleki numbers have links into ARIGFH leading to the objects identified and not identfied from these tables.
Advanced users will want to directly access the tables.
The arigfh schema consists of several tables. The most important one is the arigfh.gfh table, containing almost all published data. In it, positions and proper motions are largely as they were published, i.e., in a wild mixture of equinoxes for a wild mixture of epochs. Also, not all objects have both a usable RA and Dec. Therefore, there is no spatial index on the table. We have indexed RA and Dec separately, though.
The primary way to approach the gfh table (apart from sequential scans, which due to the moderate size of the table should be no big issue) is through catid (the catalog id, formed like tNNNNpNN; see katkat for details) and catan (the ARIGFH-assigned running number within the catalog, as opposed to catcn, the published catalog number).
Within the arigfh.gfh table, there should for most objects be sufficient metadata to at least precess the objects. What ARIGFH actually did to crossmatch the objects was to precess and transform a master catalog (in the arigfh.master table) to the published epoch and equinox and use that to crossmatch the objects.
The result of this matching is in the arigfh.identified table. It connects each identified position from the gfh table via the catid/catan pair to a position in the master catalog (via the masterNo column). These relationships are flattened out in the arigfh.id table. This is the basis for the SCS and web services since it contains ICRS positions as well as the historic observations.
Analoguosly, there is the arigfh.unidenfied table, giving catid and catan for the objects from gfh that could not be matched to the master catalog. Selecting those from the gfh table yields arigfh.nid. There's a simple web frontend for that table at arigfh/q/nidweb/form. Most of what is in there these probably just represents typos, but if you look, you will certainly find all kinds of weird things. Who knows -- maybe you could even find the optical counterpart of a historic GRB...
Where available, the katkat service lets you download the FORTRAN subroutines that were used to parse the data files. To understand them, please refer to to the (German) descriptions or ask the operators for the documents to be translated; of course, all comments in the FORTRAN code are in German, too. On the other hand, those comments are not terribly useful in the first place.
The subroutines use some functions that we've not yet published, mainly because they might be embarrassing to the anonymous authors. If you actually intend to use the subroutines, let us know and we will try to cook up a source file that contains all functions used.
While working on the import of the old data, many subroutines needed to be fixed. Most changes fixed spurious line feeds, uninitialized variables, changes in the FORTRAN compiler's way to evaluate string comparisons, etc. Since the original routines are still stored, it would be possible to reconstruct the changes, but since they are unlikely to have introduced additional problems, we do not list changes here.
However, with this experience in mind, it is certain that additional problems connected to changing FORTRAN semantics lurk in the parsing subroutines and thus the data. Bug reports are welcome.
Having said all that, the only thing the subroutines should probably used for is to glean metadata from them. The student assistants who wrote the subroutines were supposed to carefully study the introductions to the catalogs in order to fill out the metadata fields (kennx4/8), and quite a number of them actually did.
ARIGFH's predecessor or inspiration, "Geschichte des Fixsternhimmels" (Paetsch et al) or GFH, "The history of the stellar sky", is a massive collection of stellar positions from almost all published catalogs for the 18th and 19th centuries.
The endeavor started in 1898 with a memorandum by Friedrich Wilhelm Ristenpart of Heidelberger Sternwarte (with input by Arthur von Auwers, who had suggested a similar project some 20 years before) to the Prussian Academy of Sciences proposing the generation of a "Thesaurus positionum stellarum affixarum". Auwers then applied for funding and got it for fiscal year 1998/99. Ristenpart was appointed director of the project.
The source material of GFH consisted of 442 catalogs with roughly 250000 objects and about a million individual positions. These had to be brought to equinox B1875.0 and crossmatched, all without the help of modern digital computers.
One first result of Ristenpart's activities was the "Fehlerverzeichnis zu den Sternkatalogen des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts" ("Directory of Errors in the Star Catalogs of the 18th and 19th centuries"), published in 1908. When Ristenpart moved to Santiago de Chile, Hans Paetsch took over. Due to Auwer's death, World War I, and problems in the preprint phase, the first volume of GFH, covering 0h in RA on the northern sky, did not appear until 1922.
In the 1920s, work was significantly delayed when temporarily Paetsch was the only person actually working on GFH. Starting 1926, personnel was re-allottet to GFH, such that by 1936 the northen part of GFH was finished.
The publication of the southern part of GFH began in 1937, after Johannes Haas had taken over from Paetsch when the latter had retired in 1929. World War II and the split of the program into a western part in Bonn and a dormant eastern part in Potsdam had brought GFH to a standstill until IAU's executive committee passed a decision noting the importance of the volumes still missing.
The last volume of the original GFH (full catalog set reduced to equinox B1875.0) was published by the East German GFH project in 1966; somewhat earlier, the Bonn group published their last volume in 1958, but they were missing some catalogs that they considered sufficiently covered by the Hamburg Index.
This section is heavily based on 1972S&W....11..224A. The bibliography there lists the following items that are not yet in ADS:
You can access this service using:
This service is published as follows:
local means it is listed on our front page, ivo_managed means it has a record in the VO registry.
Other services provided on the underlying data include:
The following fields are available to provide input to the service (with some renderers, some of these fields may be unavailable):
|catid||Cat.||Catalog identifier as t(teleki no)p(part)(version)||N/A||meta.ref|
|DEC||Delta (ICRS)||Declination (ICRS decimal)||deg||pos.eq.dec|
|hscs_pos||Position/Name||Coordinates (as h m s, d m s or decimal degrees), or SIMBAD-resolvable object||N/A||N/A|
|hscs_sr||Search radius||Search radius in arcminutes||N/A||N/A|
|RA||Alpha (ICRS)||Right Ascension (ICRS decimal)||deg||pos.eq.ra|
|SR||Search Radius||Search radius||deg||N/A|
The following fields are contained in the output by default. More fields may be available for selection; these would be given below in the VOTable output fields.
|_r||Dist.||Distance to cone center||deg||pos.distance|
|catan||ARI catno||Object number in source catalog, ARI assigned||N/A||meta.id|
|catca||Cat id suffix||Suffix to the designation in the source catalog||N/A||meta.id|
|catcn||Cat id||Object number in source catalog, as in source||N/A||meta.id|
|catid||Cat.||Catalog identifier as t(teleki no)p(part)(version)||N/A||meta.ref|
|compMaster||Comp||Component designation in a multiple system in the master catalog||N/A||meta.code.multip|
|decCat||Dec (cat)||Declination at catalog equinox and epoch||deg||pos.eq.dec|
|decflags||Dec flags||Details on observation and processing of dec (see note) Note c||N/A||meta.code;pos.eq.dec|
|dej2000||Dec||Master Declination, Epoch and Equinox J2000||deg||pos.eq.dec;meta.main|
|dist||Offset||Offset between master catalog position at catalog epoch and equinox and the catalog position||deg||pos.angDistance|
|dscode||Comp||Code for multiple star component designation Note b||N/A||meta.code.multip|
|e_Dec||Err. Dec||Mean error in declination as given in catalog||deg||stat.error;pos.eq.dec;meta.main|
|e_pmde||Err. PM (Dec)||Mean error in the proper motion in Dec according to the catalog||deg/yr||stat.error;pos.pm;pos.eq.dec|
|e_pmra||Err. PM (RA)||Mean error in the proper motion in RA according to the catalog||deg/yr||stat.error;pos.pm;pos.eq.ra|
|e_RA||Err. RA||Mean error in right ascension as given in catalog||deg||stat.error;pos.eq.ra;meta.main|
|epDec||Ep. Dec||Epoch of the catalog declination, Julian years||yr||time.epoch;pos.eq.dec|
|epPmde||Ep. PM(Dec)||Epoch of cat. PM in declination||yr||time.epoch;pos.pm;pos.eq.dec|
|epPmra||Ep. PM(RA)||Epoch of cat. PM in RA||yr||time.epoch;pos.pm;pos.eq.ra|
|epRA||Ep. RA||Epoch of the catalog RA, Julian years||yr||time.epoch;pos.eq.ra|
|eqDec||Eq. Dec||Equinox of the catalog declination, Julian years||yr||time.equinox;pos.eq.dec|
|eqPmde||Eq. PM(Dec)||Equinox of cat. PM in Dec||yr||time.equinox;pos.pm;pos.eq.dec|
|eqPmra||Eq. PM(RA)||Equinox of cat. PM in RA||yr||time.equinox;pos.pm;pos.eq.ra|
|eqRA||Eq. RA||Equinox of the catalog RA, Julian years||yr||time.equinox;pos.eq.ra|
|iq||Match Qual.||Quality of match, quality decreasing with values increasing from 2||N/A||meta.code.qual|
|mag||mag||Apparent magnitude as specified by magsys||N/A||phot.mag|
|magsys||Mag. Sys.||System of mag Note m||N/A||meta.code;phot.mag|
|masterNo||id#||Identification number in the ARIGFH master catalog||N/A||meta.id;meta.main|
|mbMaster||m_B||Blue magnitude in the master catalog||mag||phot.mag;em.opt.B|
|meanepDec||Mean Ep. Dec||Mean Epoch of the declination, Julian years||yr||time.epoch|
|meanepRA||Mean Ep. RA||Mean Epoch of RA, Julian years||yr||time.epoch|
|mvMaster||m_V||Visual magnitude in the master catalog||mag||phot.mag;em.opt.V|
|nobDec||#(Dec)||Number of observations combined into decCat||N/A||meta.number;obs|
|nobpmde||#PM (Dec)||Number of observations combined into the proper motion in Declination||N/A||meta.number;obs|
|nobpmra||#PM (RA)||Number of observations combined into the proper motion in RA||N/A||meta.number;obs|
|nobRA||#(RA)||Number of observations combined into raCat||N/A||meta.number;obs|
|pmde||PM (Dec)||Cat. proper motion in declination||deg/yr||pos.pm;pos.eq.dec|
|pmdeflag||PM Dec type||Type of PM Dec; see note Note p||N/A||meta.flag;pos.pm;pos.eq.dec|
|pmdeMaster||PM(Dec)||Master Proper motion in Declination, Epoch and Equinox J2000||deg/yr||pos.pm;pos.eq.dec|
|pmra||PM (RA)||Cat. proper motion in RA||deg/yr||pos.pm;pos.eq.ra|
|pmraflag||PM RA type||Type of PM RA; see note Note p||N/A||meta.flag;pos.pm;pos.eq.ra|
|pmraMaster||PM(RA)||Master Proper Motion in RA, Epoch and Equinox J2000, cos(delta) applied||deg/yr||pos.pm;pos.eq.ra|
|raCat||RA (cat)||Right ascension at catalog equinox and epoch||deg||pos.eq.ra|
|raflags||RA flags||Details on observation and processing of RA (see note) Note c||N/A||meta.code;pos.eq.ra|
|raj2000||RA||Master Right Ascension, Epoch and Equinox J2000||deg||pos.eq.ra;meta.main|
|useDec||Use Dec?||0=Dec unusable, 1=Dec usable, 2=Dec good, but epoch guessed||N/A||meta.flag;pos.eq.dec|
|useRA||Use RA?||0=RA unusable, 1=RA usable, 2=RA good, but epoch guessed||N/A||meta.flag;pos.eq.ra|
|varflag||Var?||Code for photometric variability Note v||N/A||meta.code;src.var|
The following fields are available in VOTable output. The verbosity level is a number intended to represent the relative importance of the field on a scale of 1 to 30. The services take a VERB argument. A field is included in the output if their verbosity level is less or equal VERB*10.
|Name||Table Head||Description||Unit||UCD||Verb. Level|
|masterNo||id#||Identification number in the ARIGFH master catalog||N/A||meta.id;meta.main||1|
|raj2000||RA||Master Right Ascension, Epoch and Equinox J2000||deg||pos.eq.ra;meta.main||1|
|dej2000||Dec||Master Declination, Epoch and Equinox J2000||deg||pos.eq.dec;meta.main||1|
|dist||Offset||Offset between master catalog position at catalog epoch and equinox and the catalog position||deg||pos.angDistance||1|
|catcn||Cat id||Object number in source catalog, as in source||N/A||meta.id||1|
|catca||Cat id suffix||Suffix to the designation in the source catalog||N/A||meta.id||1|
|raCat||RA (cat)||Right ascension at catalog equinox and epoch||deg||pos.eq.ra||1|
|eqRA||Eq. RA||Equinox of the catalog RA, Julian years||yr||time.equinox;pos.eq.ra||1|
|decCat||Dec (cat)||Declination at catalog equinox and epoch||deg||pos.eq.dec||1|
|eqDec||Eq. Dec||Equinox of the catalog declination, Julian years||yr||time.equinox;pos.eq.dec||1|
|_r||Dist.||Distance to cone center||deg||pos.distance||10|
|pmraMaster||PM(RA)||Master Proper Motion in RA, Epoch and Equinox J2000, cos(delta) applied||deg/yr||pos.pm;pos.eq.ra||11|
|pmdeMaster||PM(Dec)||Master Proper motion in Declination, Epoch and Equinox J2000||deg/yr||pos.pm;pos.eq.dec||11|
|pmra||PM (RA)||Cat. proper motion in RA||deg/yr||pos.pm;pos.eq.ra||11|
|pmde||PM (Dec)||Cat. proper motion in declination||deg/yr||pos.pm;pos.eq.dec||11|
|epRA||Ep. RA||Epoch of the catalog RA, Julian years||yr||time.epoch;pos.eq.ra||12|
|epDec||Ep. Dec||Epoch of the catalog declination, Julian years||yr||time.epoch;pos.eq.dec||12|
|catid||Cat.||Catalog identifier as t(teleki no)p(part)(version)||N/A||meta.ref||15|
|dscode||Comp||Code for multiple star component designation Note b||N/A||meta.code.multip||15|
|mag||mag||Apparent magnitude as specified by magsys||N/A||phot.mag||15|
|mvMaster||m_V||Visual magnitude in the master catalog||mag||phot.mag;em.opt.V||18|
|mbMaster||m_B||Blue magnitude in the master catalog||mag||phot.mag;em.opt.B||18|
|compMaster||Comp||Component designation in a multiple system in the master catalog||N/A||meta.code.multip||19|
|e_RA||Err. RA||Mean error in right ascension as given in catalog||deg||stat.error;pos.eq.ra;meta.main||19|
|e_Dec||Err. Dec||Mean error in declination as given in catalog||deg||stat.error;pos.eq.dec;meta.main||19|
|e_pmra||Err. PM (RA)||Mean error in the proper motion in RA according to the catalog||deg/yr||stat.error;pos.pm;pos.eq.ra||19|
|pmraflag||PM RA type||Type of PM RA; see note Note p||N/A||meta.flag;pos.pm;pos.eq.ra||19|
|e_pmde||Err. PM (Dec)||Mean error in the proper motion in Dec according to the catalog||deg/yr||stat.error;pos.pm;pos.eq.dec||19|
|pmdeflag||PM Dec type||Type of PM Dec; see note Note p||N/A||meta.flag;pos.pm;pos.eq.dec||19|
|magsys||Mag. Sys.||System of mag Note m||N/A||meta.code;phot.mag||21|
|varflag||Var?||Code for photometric variability Note v||N/A||meta.code;src.var||21|
|eqPmra||Eq. PM(RA)||Equinox of cat. PM in RA||yr||time.equinox;pos.pm;pos.eq.ra||21|
|epPmra||Ep. PM(RA)||Epoch of cat. PM in RA||yr||time.epoch;pos.pm;pos.eq.ra||21|
|eqPmde||Eq. PM(Dec)||Equinox of cat. PM in Dec||yr||time.equinox;pos.pm;pos.eq.dec||21|
|epPmde||Ep. PM(Dec)||Epoch of cat. PM in declination||yr||time.epoch;pos.pm;pos.eq.dec||21|
|catan||ARI catno||Object number in source catalog, ARI assigned||N/A||meta.id||25|
|iq||Match Qual.||Quality of match, quality decreasing with values increasing from 2||N/A||meta.code.qual||25|
|nobRA||#(RA)||Number of observations combined into raCat||N/A||meta.number;obs||25|
|useRA||Use RA?||0=RA unusable, 1=RA usable, 2=RA good, but epoch guessed||N/A||meta.flag;pos.eq.ra||25|
|raflags||RA flags||Details on observation and processing of RA (see note) Note c||N/A||meta.code;pos.eq.ra||25|
|nobDec||#(Dec)||Number of observations combined into decCat||N/A||meta.number;obs||25|
|useDec||Use Dec?||0=Dec unusable, 1=Dec usable, 2=Dec good, but epoch guessed||N/A||meta.flag;pos.eq.dec||25|
|decflags||Dec flags||Details on observation and processing of dec (see note) Note c||N/A||meta.code;pos.eq.dec||25|
|nobpmra||#PM (RA)||Number of observations combined into the proper motion in RA||N/A||meta.number;obs||25|
|nobpmde||#PM (Dec)||Number of observations combined into the proper motion in Declination||N/A||meta.number;obs||25|
|meanepRA||Mean Ep. RA||Mean Epoch of RA, Julian years||yr||time.epoch||27|
|meanepDec||Mean Ep. Dec||Mean Epoch of the declination, Julian years||yr||time.epoch||27|
catalog data is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
VOResource XML (that's something exclusively for VO nerds)
The dscode gives a note on components of multiple star systems derived from what the original catalog gives. It is formed as 1000*n1 + 100*n2 + n3, where
|1||p, pr., first, or similar|
|2||s, sq., follow, or similar|
|1||N, north, or similar|
|2||S, south, or similar|
|1..15||A, B, C... Component|
|41..58||as 1..17, but lowercase|
|80||other designations, like "double", "triple", etc.|
|88||c.g., center of gravity|
|89||as one star|
|90||additional specifications (like relative positions)|
Declination and right ascension values given by the catalogue are described by numeric flags with up to five digits. The digit's meanings are, from most to least significant:
|msd||Treatment of upper and lower culmination|
|0||no treatment of upper/lower culmination|
|1||value given was obtained at upper culmination|
|2||value given was obtained at lower culmination|
|5||lower culmination and reflected observation|
|2nd digit||Type of data given|
|1||positions are observed or compiled as given|
|2||catalog gives observed differences|
|3||position was not observed but copied from some other source|
|4||position only given approximately|
|5||position was reconstructed from a difference|
|3rd digit||Position is for...|
|0||epoch of observation|
|1||epoch of equinox and catalog PMs have been used|
|2||some non-observation epoch, but catalog PMs have not been used|
|3||sometimes for eoo, sometimes not|
|4th digit||Treatment of elliptic aberration|
|0||positions do not include elliptic aberration|
|1||positions do include elliptic aberration|
|lsd||Treatment of cos(delta) in RA differences and PMs|
|0||no cos(delta) applied|
The magsys column is built from two characters as c1+c2. Their meaning is
|c1||Magnitude use flag|
|0||No magnitude observed|
|1||Magnitude was directly observed|
|2||Magniude is taken from another source|
|9||Inconsistent or unknown|
|0||No magnitude observed|
|2||photoelectric in the visual band|
|9||Inconsistent or unknown|
The pmratype and pmdetype fields contain a single number describing what the proper motion given in the catalog is:
|1||Proper motion is computed and given directly|
|2||Proper motion was taken from a different catalog|
|3||Catalog gives differences to another catalog (!)|
|4||Proper motion was given in North Polar Distance|
|9||Source of P.M. is unclear|
Note that in case 4 the sign of the proper motion has already been reversed. In contrast, no attempt has been made to fix the relative proper motions in case 3. Values with a flag of 3 are thus not usable.
The variability flag takes the following values:
|0||not variable (or not applicable)|
|1||variable without further information|
|2||maximum magnitude given|
|3||minimal magnitude given|
|4||mean magnitude given|
|5||RR Lyrae type variability|
|6||delta Cephei type variability|
|7||variability at a level of <0.06 mag|
|8||variability at a level of 0.06 .. 0.6 mag|
|9||variability at a level of >0.6 mag|